Why is it that anytime a paper is written for class, there is a certain manner in which the instructor wants it written? It usually has something to do with the subject area and the expected style and citation format for that particular discipline. Here are the three main styles usually used within the liberal studies program. Remember to reference style books and style web sites for more information.
Modern Language Association (MLA)
This is the format mainly used in humanities courses, with an emphasis on the authorship. Citations are in parentheses.
Sample Works Cited Format:
Books: Author's name, work title, publication city, publisher, year published, and publication medium.
Periodicals: Author. "Title of article". Publication, date published. Volume and pages. Publication medium
Article in online journal: Author. "Title of article." Journal name volume (date): pages. Medium. Date accessed.
American Psychological Association (APA)
This style is most used in the social sciences with an emphasis on date of the creation. Citations are in parentheses.
Sample Reference Page Format:
Books: Author's name. (Publication year). Work title. Publication city: publisher.
Articles in Periodicals: Author's last name and initials. (Publication date & month). Title in sentence case. Periodical title in title case, volume and pages (italicized)
Online Sources: Author. (Date). Article title. Site Title, volume or issue. Retrieved from URL or DOI (digital object identifier)
Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)
This is the usual method for historical documentation with an emphasis on source origins. Footnotes and endnotes are used on page to show where information is derived.
Sample Notes Format:
Books: Author. Work Title. Publication city:publisher, publication year
Articles in Periodicals: Author. "Article title". Publication, Publication date written out, publication information
Online sources: Author. Document title. URL or DOI
- No title page needed
- Name and page number in top right
- 1" margins
- Legible font, 12 point, usually Times New Roman
- Title page, abstract, main body and References are the sections of an APA paper
- Running head and page number (running head: shortened title page number)
- 1" margins
- Clear font, 12 point, usually Times New Roman
- Title page, notes, and Bibliography
- Page number in the top right
- 1'-1.5" margins
- Font clear, 10-12 point, usually Times New Roman
The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web 06/20/2013.
The Purdue OWL: Citation Chart, n.d. Web 06/20/2013.
Aaron, Jane and Anderson, Daniel. The Little Brown Compact Handbook, 5th Edition. Pearson Education, 2004. Print.
Lipson, Charles. Cite Right, A Quick Guide to Citation Styles; MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. Print.
Raines, Ann and Jerskey, Maria. Keys for Writers. Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.